They usually occur before the 20th and 24th week. Many pregnancies are usually lost before doctors are aware of the presence of an embryo in the uterus. Spontaneous abortion is caused by chromosomal abnormalities, vascular diseases, diabetes, infections, uterus abnormalities and trauma among others Isabel page The most frequent causes of spontaneous abortion are age and a history of spontaneous abortions.
Accidents and trauma have also been linked with the high rates of miscarriages among women. Causes of abortion Abortion is caused by a myriad of factors among them social, religious and economic factors. Children and pregnancy are seen as a hindrance to a lot of fun and pleasure. One would easily remove the pregnancy in pursuit of this pleasure. The society accepts this circumstance and even encourages it by allowing governments to legalize abortion.
The lack for respect for life is a religious factor towards promoting abortion. People no longer appreciate new life forms. One would not think twice before doing an abortion. Raging debates have come up suggesting that a foetus is not a life form until it is born. Economic issues including poverty and insufficient funding have promoted abortion. Many young mothers have opted to do an abortion citing the inability to take care of the child once it is born.
Usually such young girls do not have an income to support themselves leave the unborn child. Stigma has contributed a lot in ensuring that abortion becomes a common thing.
Girls who get pregnant while still very young get criticism especially in the developing countries. In most cultures, such a thing was unheard of.
It was unheard of for one to get a child outside marriage. If one would have such a child, she would be excommunicated. Developing countries have not fully come out of this and girls who get pregnant whilst young are looked upon as ill-mannered individuals. Rape has been a big reason why people abort their children. When rape has occurred, and one does not intend to keep the pregnancy, she would choose not to keep the baby. The experience of being raped is too big a burden that the evidence of such an ordeal in the form of a child would not be acceptable.
Many girls would quickly abort to rid themselves of this psychological trauma. Young girls have a better chance at furthering their education once they get rid of the child. In African countries for instance, a young girl getting pregnant meant that she would have to be married off immediately.
This would ruin her chances of ever getting formal education again. Getting rid of the baby provides an easier way out in the quest for education and a brighter future. Methods used in abortion There are two main methods used during abortions i. The abortion pill is used for pregnancies up to nine weeks old. A combination of two drugs is taken. They are taken within 48 hours. The effect of the drugs is that the womb contracts and sheds its lining. The process is painful.
This pain is experienced on the lower abdomen. It may cause diarrhea and vomiting. Surgical removal can be done when the foetus is at 13 to 14 weeks. A sterile tube is inserted through the cervix and into the uterus. Suction is done pulling out all the materials in the uterus. The woman may leave the hospital the same day after the procedure has been done.
At 14 and 15 weeks, surgical dilation is done using forceps to remove the unwanted foetus. Complications of abortion The most common is bleeding. Bleeding occurs normally for a few weeks. It decreases as one nears weeks 5 and 6. In cases of excessive bleeding, there are chances that the uterus may not have been emptied completely. This disease affects the vaginal area. The vagina produces an unpleasant vaginal discharge. The body temperature of the individual rises, and she experiences severe abdominal pains.
Inflammation may happen in the womb due to emptying problems Shirleen page It may be caused because the womb had not been completely emptied. This would require that a new evacuation be done for the woman. Pain is a normal problem for the abortion process. It is often relieved by using painkillers. In instances where there is excessive pain, one should consult the doctor to have her uterus rechecked. The uterus may be punctured especially during surgical termination of pregnancy.
The tools used may create a hole in the uterus causing complications. Such a patient is kept in the hospital for observation and check up Bodo page Advantages Abortion gives a chance to young women especially those below the age of 21 years to pursue their education. A young girl caught in a situation where she has to carry the child to term will mean that she cannot do anything else. She would have to stop learning at some point to address the needs of the child. Most likely, she would have to stop schooling all together to take care of the child.
By getting rid of the foetus, she is able to continue pursuing her educational needs. Abortion has been of help to women with health issues. Women with diseases such as heart disease, hypertension and sickle cell anemia have been able to avoid serious medical complications that arise from childbirth through abortions.
Such complications could easily lead to loss of life. Usually a doctor may prescribe such a procedure when he realizes that the life of the mother is in danger. Abortion gives women identity.
In the chauvinistic societies, women have no power at all over their reproductive sense. The inculcation of abortion into laws and codes of ethics has helped the women by giving them power over their sexuality. Abortion has been used to control family size. Young motherhood is easily avoided through abortion. A woman may choose to have an abortion to prevent her from becoming a mother at a very tender age. Parents have used abortion as a way to reduce the number of children that they may get.
Parents have used this to trim the numbers of children. They would discuss whether they wanted the baby or not and would remove it in case they do not want it. This helps regulate the number of children and aids in family planning.
Rape victims have found solace in the fact that they could easily remove such children that would arise from such action. Rape victims would not want to keep the baby because of psychological trauma that they would associate this child to. Removal of the child would remain the best option to end this. Disadvantages Abortion indicates brutality to the unborn child. This is because abortion is killing. It does not give the new foetus a chance to survive.
It is hinged on religion, which condemns the act saying that all are equal before the almighty. The spiritual books go against the very idea of abortion. Therefore, an unborn baby is morally accountable and thus fully human. Another argument against abortion can be found in the Old Testament legal code, specifically Exodus But if there is serious injury, you are to take life for life, eye for eye, tooth for tooth, hand for hand, foot for foot, burn for burn, wound for wound, bruise for bruise.
The verses appear to teach that if a woman gives birth prematurely, but the baby is not injured, then only a fine is appropriate. However, if the child dies then the law of retaliation lex talionis should be applied. In other words, killing an unborn baby would carry the same penalty as killing a born baby. A baby inside the womb has the same legal status as a baby outside the womb. Some commentators have come to a different conclusion because they believe the first verses only refer to a case of accidental miscarriage.
Since only a fine is levied, they argue that an unborn baby is merely potential life and does not carry the same legal status as a baby that has been born.
There are at least two problems with this interpretation. First, the normal Hebrew word for miscarry is not used in this passage cf. Most commentators now believe that the action described in verse 22 is a premature birth not an accidental miscarriage. Second, even if the verses do describe a miscarriage, the passage cannot be used to justify abortion.
The injury was accidental, not intentional as abortion would be. Also, the action was a criminal offense and punishable by law. Thus far in our discussion we have looked at biblical arguments against abortion. Are there other arguments we can use?
The medical arguments against abortion are compelling. For example, at conception the embryo is genetically distinct from the mother.
A developing embryo is genetically different from the mother. A developing embryo is also genetically different from the sperm and egg that created it. A human being has 46 chromosomes sometimes 47 chromosomes. Sperm and egg have 23 chromosomes. A trained geneticist can distinguish between the DNA of an embryo and that of a sperm and egg. But that same geneticist could not distinguish between the DNA of a developing embryo and a full-grown human being. Another set of medical arguments against abortion surround the definition of life and death.
If one set of criteria have been used to define death, could they also be used to define life? Death used to be defined by the cessation of heartbeat. A stopped heart was a clear sign of death. If the cessation of heartbeat could define death, could the onset of a heartbeat define life?
The heart is formed by the 18th day in the womb. If heartbeat was used to define life, then nearly all abortions would be outlawed. Physicians now use a more rigorous criterion for death: A flat EEG electroencephalograph is one of the most important criteria used to determine death.
If the cessation of brain wave activity can define death, could the onset of brain wave activity define life? Individual brain waves are detected in the fetus in about days. Using brain wave activity to define life would outlaw at least a majority of abortions. Opponents to abortion also raise the controversial issue of fetal pain. Does the fetus feel pain during abortion? The evidence seems fairly clear and consistent. Consider this statement made in a British medical journal: She opens her mouth to cry and also pulls away.
Try sticking an 8-week-old human fetus in the palm of his hand. He opens his mouth and pulls his hand away. A more technical description would add that changes in heart rate and fetal movement also suggest that intrauterine manipulations are painful to the fetus. Obviously, other medical criteria could be used. For example, the developing fetus has a unique set of fingerprints as well as genetic patterns that make it unique.
We can discern eyes, ears, fingers, a nose, and a mouth. Our visual senses tell us this is a baby growing and maturing. This is not a piece of protoplasm; this is a baby inside the womb. The point is simple. Medical science leads to a pro-life perspective rather than a pro-choice perspective. If medical science can be used at all to draw a line, the clearest line is at the moment of conception. Medical arguments provide a strong case against abortion and for life.
The best legal argument against abortion can be seen in the case of Roe v. It violated standard legal reasoning. The Supreme Court decided not to decide when life begins and then turned around and overturned the laws of 50 different states.
Although the sentences sounded both innocuous and unpretentious, they were neither. It overturned state laws that protected the unborn and has resulted in over 30 million abortions roughly the population of Canada in the United States. The decision also seems unpretentious by acknowledging that it did not know when life begins. A crucial role of government is to protect life. Government cannot remove a segment of the human population from its protection without adequate justification.
The burden of proof should lie with the life-taker, and the benefit of the doubt should be with the life-saver. The burden of proof in law is on the prosecution. The benefit of doubt is with the defense. This is also known as a presumption of innocence. The defendant is assumed to be innocent unless proven guilty. Again the burden of proof is on the entity that would take away life or liberty. The benefit of the doubt lies with the defense. The Supreme Court clearly stated that it does not know when life begins and then violated the very spirit of this legal principle by acting as if it just proved that no life existed in the womb.
Even more curious was the fact that to do so, it had to ignore the religious community and international community on the subject of the unborn. Had the religious community really failed to reach a consensus? Although there were some intramural disagreements, certainly the weight of evidence indicated that a Western culture founded on Judeo-Christian values held abortion to be morally wrong. People with widely divergent theological perspectives Jewish, Catholic, evangelical and fundamental Protestants shared a common agreement about the humanity of the unborn.
The same could be said about the international legal community. The unborn were protected by various international documents like the Declaration of Geneva and the U. Declaration of the Rights of the Child. Just as there are solid medical arguments against abortion, so also there are legal arguments against abortion. Wade was a bad decision that needs to be overturned.
A third set of arguments against abortion would be philosophical arguments. A key philosophical question is where do you draw the line? Put another way, when does a human being become a person? Wade separated personhood from humanity.
In other words, the judges argued that a developing fetus was a human i. Since only persons are given 14th Amendment protection under the Constitution, the Court argued that abortion could be legal at certain times.
This left to doctors, parents, or even other judges the responsibility of arbitrarily deciding when personhood should be awarded to human beings. Once the Court allowed people to start drawing lines, some drew them in unexpected ways and effectively opened the door for infanticide and euthanasia.
In the past, such criteria as implantation or quickening had been suggested.
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