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Diversification, strategic groups and the structure-conduct-performance relationship: Review of Economics and Statistics, Industry rivalry and coordination. Social structure and alliance formation patterns: Top management team size, CEO dominance, and firm performance: The moderating roles of environmental turbulence and discretion.

Assessing the amount of managerial discretion in different industries: A bridge between polar views of organizations. The organization as a reflection of its to managers. Academy of Management Review, 9: Strategic models in the brewing industry. Strategic groups, asymmetrical mobility barriers and contestability. Strategic Management Journal, 8: Heterogeneity within an industry.

Journal of Industrial Economics, A strategic model of the U. Successor type and organizational change in the corporate enterprise. Exploiting firm effects in pharmaceutical research.

A transactions costs theory of equity joint ventures. The strategy of Japanese investors in the United States. Location, governance, and strategic determinants of Japanese manufacturing investment in the United States.

Oliver Williamson and the M-form: Journal of Economic Issues, Cooperation, opportunism, and the invisible hand: Implications for transaction cost theory. Strategy and structure in the multiproduct firm. Cooperative versus competitive structures in related and unrelated diversified firms. Searching for a dynamic theory of the multinational enterprise: A transaction cost model. Strategic Management Journal, 9 Special Issue: External control, corporate strategy, and firm performance in research-intensive industries.

Business firms, business schools, and the Academy. Understanding the differences in Korean and U. Current and future research methods in strategic management. Organizational Research Methods, 1: Attributes of successful and unsuccessful acquisitions of U. British Journal of Management, 9: Mergers and acquisitions and managerial commitment to innovation in M-form firms. Strategic Management Journal, 11 Special Issue: The market for corporate control and firm innovation.

Effects on innovation and firm performance in product-diversified firms. Corporate distinctive competence, strategy, industry and performance.

Strategic Management Journal, 6: Relationships among corporate-level distinctive competencies, diversification strategy, corporate structure and performance. Moderating effects of technology and uncertainty. Functional importance and company performance: Moderating effects of grand strategy and industry type. Strategic Management Journal, 3: Navigating in the new competitive landscape: Building strategic flexibility and competitive advantage in the twenty-first century.

Academic of Management Executive, 12 4: Corporate entrepreneurship and cross-functional fertilization: Activation, process and disintegration of a new product design team. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. Multidivisional structure and performance: Enterprise strategies in transitional and emerging economies.

Academy of Management Journal. The effect of quantum versus incremental M-form reorganization on performance: A time-series exploration of intervention dynamics. Capital market evaluation of M-form implementation and diversification strategy. Organizational fossil or source of value? Antecedents and performance outcomes of diversification: A review and critique of theoretical perspectives.

How to tame the diversified firm. Balancing corporate strategy and executive compensation: Agency theory and corporate governance. Corporate restructuring and strategic change: Corporate divestiture intensity in restructuring firms: Effects of governance, strategy, and performance.

Governance and control limits of the internal capital market. Strategic choice and environmental determinism. Industry influence on strategy reformulation. Competition in the major home appliance industry, — The contributions of administrative behavior to strategic management.

The importance of an integrative approach to strategic management research. Theory of the firm: Managerial behavior, agency costs and ownership structure. Journal of Financial Economics, 3: Board of director involvement in restructuring: The effects of board versus managerial controls and characteristics. Institutional and strategic choice perspectives on board involvement in the strategic decision process.

A causal model of linkages among environmental dimensions, macro organizational characteristics, and performance. Institutional investors and firm innovation: A test of competing hypotheses.

Effects of human capital and reputation on the diversification-performance relationship in law firms: A test of the resource-based view. Paper presented at the Strategic Management Society meetings , Phoenix.

Theoretical and empirical perspectives. Strategic management Journal, 9: Knowledge of the firm, combinative capabilities, and the replication of technology. Coordination, identity, and learning. Implementing the emerging paradigm for competitive advantage. Strategic Management Journal, 16 Special issue: Quantitative analysis of patterns across case studies. Text and Case rev. Dynamic core competences through meta-learning and strategic context.

Core capabilities and core rigidities: A paradox in managing new product development. An analysis of interfirm differences in efficiency under competition. Bell Journal of Economics, The resource-based view within the conversation of strategic management. Effects of board composition and stock ownership on the adoption of poison pills. Related diversification, core competencies and corporate performance. A method for eliciting and comparing causal maps. Price and production policies of large scale enterprises.

How much does industry matter, really? Event studies in management research: Theoretical and empirical issues. Psychological and traditional determinants of structure. The resource-based view of the firm in two environments: The Hollywood film studios from — The nature of managerial work. Of diamonds and rust: A new look at resources. A synthesis of evolutionary and resource-based approaches to strategy. Norwell, MA and Dordrecht: Theories and economic organization: The case for realism and balance.

Top management group heterogeneity and firm performance. An evolutionary theory of economic change. Strategy making as interrated processes of resource allocation. Harvard Business Review, 69 6: A dynamic theory of organizational knowledge creation. The knowledge creating company. Strategic groups and the structure-performance relationships: A study with respect to the chemical process industries.

Strategic groups and the structure-performance relationship. Combining institutional and resource-based views. The institutionalization and evolutionary dynamics of interorganizational alliances and networks. Academic of Management Journal, Intraindustry structure and the ease of strategic change. Review of Economics and Statistics: A simulation equation model of corporate strategy: The theory of the growth of the firm. The cornerstones of competitive advantage: Getting to know you: A theory of strategic group identity.

Administrative succession and organizational performance: How administrator experience mediates the succession effect.

Knowledge, integration, and the locus of learning: An empirical analysis of process development. Rivalry and the industry model of Scottish knitwear producers. Retailer power, manufacturer strategy, and performance in consumer goods industry. The contribution of industrial organization to strategic management. Towards a dynamic theory of strategy.

Harvard Business Review, 74 6: Harvard Business School Publishing. Clusters and the new economics of competition. Harvard Business Review, 76 6: Management education and development: Drift of thrust into the 21st century. Hot spots and blind spots: Geographical clusters of firms and innovation. A new linkage between diversity and performance. Strategic Management Journal, 7: The core competence of the corporation. Harvard Business Review, 68 3: Organizational considerations in the evaluation of capital assets: Toward a resource-based view of strategic investment by firms.

A resource-based approach to the multibusiness firm: Empirical analysis of portfolio interrelationships and corporate financial performance. The economics of internal markets. Strategy, structure, and economic performance. Harvard Business School Press. Toward a strategic theory of the firm. Theory, strategy, and entrepreneurship. How much does industry matter?

Strategic management and economics. Fundamental issues in strategy: Harvard Press School Press. Strategic flexibility and product competition. Strategic Management Journal, 16 Speical Issue: Business policy or strategic management: A broader view for an emerging discipline. Academy of Management Proceedings, 99 — A new view of business policy and planning. The impact of technological complexity and interfirm cooperation on business survival.

Academy of Management Best papers Proceedings: It can make a difference. Predictors of competitive strategic actions: Theory and preliminary evidence. Journal of Business Research, Dynamics of competitive strategy. Organizational information processing, competitive responses and performance in the U. Top management demography and process: The role of social integration and communication.

Strategy, distinctive competence, and organizational performance. An enquiry into the nature and sources of managerial judgement. Knowledge and the firm: Seeing the big picture: The influence of industry, diversification, and business strategy on performance.

The reason was that if a U-boat saw an aircraft only shortly before it arrived over the target then at feet the charges would do no damage because the U-boat wouldn't have had time to descend as far as feet , and if it saw the aircraft a long way from the target it had time to alter course under water so the chances of it being within the foot kill zone of the charges was small.

It was more efficient to attack those submarines close to the surface when the targets' locations were better known than to attempt their destruction at greater depths when their positions could only be guessed.

Blackett observed "there can be few cases where such a great operational gain had been obtained by such a small and simple change of tactics". All damage inflicted by German air defences was noted and the recommendation was given that armour be added in the most heavily damaged areas. This recommendation was not adopted because the fact that the aircraft returned with these areas damaged indicated these areas were not vital, and adding armour to non-vital areas where damage is acceptable negatively affects aircraft performance.

Their suggestion to remove some of the crew so that an aircraft loss would result in fewer personnel losses, was also rejected by RAF command. Blackett's team made the logical recommendation that the armour be placed in the areas which were completely untouched by damage in the bombers which returned.

They reasoned that the survey was biased, since it only included aircraft that returned to Britain. The untouched areas of returning aircraft were probably vital areas, which, if hit, would result in the loss of the aircraft.

When Germany organised its air defences into the Kammhuber Line , it was realised by the British that if the RAF bombers were to fly in a bomber stream they could overwhelm the night fighters who flew in individual cells directed to their targets by ground controllers. It was then a matter of calculating the statistical loss from collisions against the statistical loss from night fighters to calculate how close the bombers should fly to minimise RAF losses.

The "exchange rate" ratio of output to input was a characteristic feature of operational research. By comparing the number of flying hours put in by Allied aircraft to the number of U-boat sightings in a given area, it was possible to redistribute aircraft to more productive patrol areas. Comparison of exchange rates established "effectiveness ratios" useful in planning.

The ratio of 60 mines laid per ship sunk was common to several campaigns: Operational research doubled the on-target bomb rate of Bs bombing Japan from the Marianas Islands by increasing the training ratio from 4 to 10 percent of flying hours; revealed that wolf-packs of three United States submarines were the most effective number to enable all members of the pack to engage targets discovered on their individual patrol stations; revealed that glossy enamel paint was more effective camouflage for night fighters than traditional dull camouflage paint finish, and the smooth paint finish increased airspeed by reducing skin friction.

They analysed, among other topics, the effectiveness of artillery, aerial bombing and anti-tank shooting. With expanded techniques and growing awareness of the field at the close of the war, operational research was no longer limited to only operational, but was extended to encompass equipment procurement, training, logistics and infrastructure. Operations Research also grew in many areas other than the military once scientists learned to apply its principles to the civilian sector.

With the development of the simplex algorithm for linear programming in [26] and the development of computers over the next three decades, Operations Research can now "solve problems with hundreds of thousands of variables and constraints. Moreover, the large volumes of data required for such problems can be stored and manipulated very efficiently.

Operational research is also used extensively in government where evidence-based policy is used. In Stafford Beer characterized the field of management science as "the business use of operations research".

It uses various scientific research -based principles, strategies , and analytical methods including mathematical modeling , statistics and numerical algorithms to improve an organization's ability to enact rational and meaningful management decisions by arriving at optimal or near optimal solutions to complex decision problems. Management scientists help businesses to achieve their goals using the scientific methods of operational research.

The management scientist's mandate is to use rational, systematic, science-based techniques to inform and improve decisions of all kinds. Of course, the techniques of management science are not restricted to business applications but may be applied to military, medical, public administration, charitable groups, political groups or community groups. Management science is concerned with developing and applying models and concepts that may prove useful in helping to illuminate management issues and solve managerial problems, as well as designing and developing new and better models of organizational excellence.

The application of these models within the corporate sector became known as management science. Some of the fields that have considerable overlap with Operations Research and Management Science include [32]:. Applications are abundant such as in airlines, manufacturing companies, service organizations , military branches, and government. The range of problems and issues to which it has contributed insights and solutions is vast. Management is also concerned with so-called 'soft-operational analysis' which concerns methods for strategic planning , strategic decision support , problem structuring methods.

In dealing with these sorts of challenges, mathematical modeling and simulation may not be appropriate or may not suffice. Therefore, during the past 30 years [ vague ] , a number of non-quantified modeling methods have been developed.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the academic journal, see Operations Research. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. West Churchman William W. Cooper Robert Dorfman Richard M.

Karp Ramayya Krishnan Frederick W. Roth Peter Whittle Related fields Behavioral operations research Big data Business engineering Business process management Database normalization Engineering management Geographic information systems Industrial engineering Industrial organization Managerial economics Military simulation Project Production Management Reliability engineering Scientific management Search-based software engineering Simulation modeling System safety Wargaming.

Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 13 November Retrieved 27 January Archived from the original on 27 May Sodhi, "What about the 'O' in O. History — Britannica Online Encyclopedia". Following the creation of a unified Ministry of Defence, a tri-service operational research organisation was established: Dirty Little Secrets of the Twentieth Century. Journal of the American Statistical Association.

United States Naval Institute Proceedings. Archived 14 September at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved 5 June The University of Tennessee, Omega - International Journal of Management Science.

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Looking for a DBA or PhD in business and management? Find out which fields of business research present most opportunities, according to course leaders. In the words of Dr Valérie Sabatier, deputy director of the Doctoral School at Grenoble Ecole de Management in France, “What we knew several. Evaluating inductive vs deductive research in management studies: Implications for authors, editors, and reviewers See more > The most cited papers from this title published in the last 3 years.

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Business and management research is a systematic inquiry that helps to solve business problems and contributes to management knowledge. It Is an applied research. Four factors (Easterby-Smith, ) combine to make business and management a distinctive focus for research. 14 ImprovIng Your research management ; Altbach, a,b), as it is in more mature national research cultures. And the push to support business and industry by increas-ing university/industry linkages is occurring as much in middle- and.