Suppose, for example, researchers are interested in rural communities and their average family size. If published statistics are consulted then a check must be done on how terms such as "family size" have been defined.
They may refer only to the nucleus family or include the extended family. Even apparently simple terms such as 'farm size' need careful handling. Such figures may refer to any one of the following: It should be noted that definitions may change over time and where this is not recognised erroneous conclusions may be drawn.
Geographical areas may have their boundaries redefined, units of measurement and grades may change and imported goods can be reclassified from time to time for purposes of levying customs and excise duties. The only solution is to try to speak to the individuals involved in the collection of the data to obtain some guidance on the level of accuracy of the data.
The problem is sometimes not so much 'error' but differences in levels of accuracy required by decision makers. When the research has to do with large investments in, say, food manufacturing, management will want to set very tight margins of error in making market demand estimates.
In other cases, having a high level of accuracy is not so critical. For instance, if a food manufacturer is merely assessing the prospects for one more flavour for a snack food already produced by the company then there is no need for highly accurate estimates in order to make the investment decision. Source bias Researchers have to be aware of vested interests when they consult secondary sources.
Those responsible for their compilation may have reasons for wishing to present a more optimistic or pessimistic set of results for their organisation. It is not unknown, for example, for officials responsible for estimating food shortages to exaggerate figures before sending aid requests to potential donors. Similarly, and with equal frequency, commercial organisations have been known to inflate estimates of their market shares.
Reliability The reliability of published statistics may vary over time. It is not uncommon, for example, for the systems of collecting data to have changed over time but without any indication of this to the reader of published statistics. Geographical or administrative boundaries may be changed by government, or the basis for stratifying a sample may have altered.
Other aspects of research methodology that affect the reliability of secondary data is the sample size, response rate, questionnaire design and modes of analysis. Time scale Most censuses take place at 10 year intervals, so data from this and other published sources may be out-of-date at the time the researcher wants to make use of the statistics.
The time period during which secondary data was first compiled may have a substantial effect upon the nature of the data. For instance, the significant increase in the price obtained for Ugandan coffee in the mid's could be interpreted as evidence of the effectiveness of the rehabilitation programme that set out to restore coffee estates which had fallen into a state of disrepair. However, more knowledgeable coffee market experts would interpret the rise in Ugandan coffee prices in the context of large scale destruction of the Brazilian coffee crop, due to heavy frosts, in , Brazil being the largest coffee producer in the world.
Whenever possible, marketing researchers ought to use multiple sources of secondary data. In this way, these different sources can be cross-checked as confirmation of one another. Where differences occur an explanation for these must be found or the data should be set aside.
As can be seen, the flowchart divides into two phases. The early stages of the flowchart relate to the relevance of the data to the research objectives. The later stages of the flowchart are concerned with questions about the accuracy of secondary data.
Internal sources of secondary information Sales data: All organisations collect information in the course of their everyday operations. Orders are received and delivered, costs are recorded, sales personnel submit visit reports, invoices are sent out, returned goods are recorded and so on. Much of this information is of potential use in marketing research but a surprising amount of it is actually used. Organisations frequently overlook this valuable resource by not beginning their search of secondary sources with an internal audit of sales invoices, orders, inquiries about products not stocked, returns from customers and sales force customer calling sheets.
For example, consider how much information can be obtained from sales orders and invoices: This type of data is useful for identifying an organisation's most profitable product and customers. It can also serve to track trends within the enterprise's existing customer group.
At this final step, the researcher should seek actionable findings to move the project forward. It is important to look back at the list of research questions from the first step and ask if they have all been answered and if there is any new question been raised.
The most important goal is to come up with future actions for the project. During the step of gathering data, researcher should make sure to verify the credibility of the information coming from the Internet. Screenshots or another method for saving important websites should be used for reference since the online data might be changed without notice. For data such as reports and statistics, the best way to verify their credibility is to consult the appendix and references.
Generally, the more detailed the references, the more trustable the data. Secondary Research is of value when information is compared and analyzed, when the researcher performs a critical review of the data, and when the researcher comes up with actionable findings to move the project forward. After the brainstorming process, several ideas and themes had been chosen for mock-ups.
The ideas and themes were then divided into styles, and secondary researches had been conducted based on those styles as topics. Most information was in the form of visual data. Information was arranged into mood boards for analysis. These findings led to a search for a new approach to the campaign that could make the Fall Winter ad unique. A brainstorming process was used once again and a final campaign evolved that met the expectations of stakeholders.
Go to the file and find the last one done, learn from it before you decide a new study is required. The same is true for copy concept issues. If the concept is worth a damn, it has been researched before.
Reuse data, stretch it out to the max and reserve your budget for truly new, necessary primary studies. That's why we developed our "research library. And, it is organized for easy access. Now it is company policy that any research request has to include proof that the library has already been searched and found lacking-before any new can be conducted! While this knowledge is stored in individuals' minds rather than on paper or computer disk, it can be as valid and valuable as more formal sources.
Had the marketing manager quickly asked the most obvious internal experts-members of the sales force-to explain the sales decline, work on a competitive new product could have begun almost a year earlier. In addition to the sales force, companies have discovered that marketing research personnel, technical representatives, advertising agency personnel, product managers, and public relations personnel often have expert knowledge of relevance to marketing problems.
Email us your resume on careers managementparadise. To view links or images in signatures your post count must be 0 or greater. You currently have 0 posts. Internal Sources of Secondary Data. Internal sources of data entry is very much important and easy to get.
If you internal data precisely then it won't be difficult for you to generate hypothesis and carry on the further process. The main important function of having internal data is that it saves your time and resources. Internal data entry is already maintained you just have arranged it in a synchronized and systematic structure. Discussions Projects Articles Blogs Videos. Online Retailers in Hong Kong: Global BPO Market Implementation of E-agriculture in Bangladesh.
Human Resources role in the Target Corporation.
Secondary data is information that has been collected for a purpose other than your current research project but has some relevance and utility for your research. Sources of Secondary Data. You can break the sources of secondary data into internal sources and external sources.
Besides the above mentioned sources of marketing research, there are many other sources of supplying secondary data e.g., colleges and universities stock exchanges and commodity exchanges, specialised libraries’, internal sources such as sales and purchase records, salesman, reports, sales orders, customer complaints and records of other .
External secondary data, on the other hand, is data that has been published by other organisations. What are internal sources of secondary data? Every department within an organisation will have its own records that represent a potential source of valuable data. Jun 06, · One of' the most overlooked sources of internal secondary data is internal experts. An internal expert is anyone employed by the firm who has special knowledge. The following statement by a senior research manager at a major consumer goods firm describes why his organization developed a research reports library and .
Internal Secondary Research Sources Of Internal Secondary Research. Internally an organisation has access to a wealth of information, which can be a useful tool for decision making for managers. Internal Secondary Data consists of information gathered within researcher’s firm (i.e. customers databases and reports from past primary research) External Secondary Data consists of information gathered outside of researcher’s firm (i.e. government statistics and information from media sources).