Each type of research design that you can use to guide your dissertation has unique ethical challenges. These types of research design include quantitative research designs , qualitative research designs and mixed methods research designs. The impact of each of these types of research design on research ethics is discussed in turn:.
Compared with qualitative research designs, the more structured and well-defined characteristics of quantitative research designs allow researchers to plan much of the research process before it starts.
Even during the research process, there tends to be relatively little drift from these plans. From an ethical perspective, this makes it easier to: This is the case whether your dissertation involves experimental or non-experimental research. In the case of non-experimental research, this can often mean that instead of having to submit an Ethics Proposal to an Ethics Committee , you may only have to convince your supervisor that you have addressed any potential ethical challenges you expect to face.
This will save you time. However, if you are conducting experimental research, especially involving human subjects, there is a greater likelihood that you will need to submit an Ethics Proposal to an Ethics Committee , which can slow down the research process. Despite this, the pre-planned and procedural nature of quantitative research designs does make it easier to understand what ethical challenges you may face, which avoids potential ethical issues arising during the research process that may affect the way you can analyse and present your data.
Qualitative research designs tend to be more evolutionary in nature when compared with quantitative research designs. For example, data collected during the research process can influence the choice of research methods in subsequent phases of a qualitative research design. As a result, it is often only during the research process that potential ethical issues that may be faced in the next phase of a research project become clear.
This can make it harder to: If your research involves a controversial practices e. However, Ethics Committees are increasingly recognising the evolutionary nature of qualitative research designs and the potential ethical uncertainties they sometimes create. For the most part, you should be able to recognise most of the potential ethical scenarios you may face during the research process and propose in advance how you would overcome these.
If you are using a mixed methods research design, you will need to take into account the ethical challenges inherent in quantitative and qualitative research designs.
After all, you will be using both qualitative and quantitative research methods. To some extent, this may put a greater burden on your dissertation, slowing down the research process, especially if you need to conduct a qualitative research phase e. Whilst quantitative, qualitative and mixed methods research designs all present ethical challenges, most are easily overcome. Even when using mixed methods research designs, you should be able to recognise different ethical scenarios ; that is, different ethical issues you would face if using one research method before another, or one research method in conjunction with another.
Recognising the basic ethical principles that dissertations should adhere to is a good starting point [see the article: Principles of research ethics ]. The potential ethical issues raised by different research methods not only differ from one type of research method to the next e. To illustrate some of the different ethical issues you will face across research methods, we discuss surveys and structured interviews , observation and informal and in-depth interviews.
Each of these research methods is discussed in turn:. By their very nature, surveys and structured interviews have to be designed before the research process starts. In fact, since these two types of research method typically use closed questions where respondents must choose from pre-defined options, most of the potential answers to questions are known in advance. Randomization occurs when all members of the sampling frame have an equal opportunity of being selected for the study.
Following is a discussion of probability and non-probability sampling and the different types of each. Probability Sampling — Uses randomization and takes steps to ensure all members of a population have a chance of being selected. There are several variations on this type of sampling and following is a list of ways probability sampling may occur:. Non-probability Sampling — Does not rely on the use of randomization techniques to select members.
This is typically done in studies where randomization is not possible in order to obtain a representative sample.
Bias is more of a concern with this type of sampling. The different types of non-probability sampling are as follows:. The following Slideshare presentation, Sampling in Quantitative and Qualitative Research — A practical how to, offers an overview of sampling methods for quantitative research and contrasts them with qualitative method for further understanding.
Examples of Data Collection Methods — Following is a link to a chart of data collection methods that examines types of data collection, advantages and challenges.
Qualitative and Quantitative Data Collection Methods - The link below provides specific example of instruments and methods used to collect quantitative data.
Sampling and Measurement - The link below defines sampling and discusses types of probability and nonprobability sampling. Principles of Sociological Inquiry — Qualitative and Quantitative Methods — The following resources provides a discussion of sampling methods and provides examples. This pin will expire , on Change. This pin never expires. Whatever method you choose, make sure you have a large enough sample to make the information credible.
For example, assume you are launching a new video game, and you hold a focus group of 12 people. Although it's good to get feedback on users' experience with the product, it isn't enough to define how the entire market will react to the product.
The sample is too small. Holding focus groups in 20 geographic regions, with each region hosting a group of 12 for each market segment perhaps age ranges , would be a better way to establish credibility in the feedback.
Conducting your own surveys isn't always necessary. If there are major innovations breaking through in your industry, it is possible to use that industry data and to adapt it to your marketing needs. For example, the influx of hacking and hijacking of cloud-based information has made internet security a topic of many industry reports. An IT professional using these reports is better able to understand the problems his IT clients are facing. As a result, he can provide solutions they already know they need.
It is important when using any qualitative research methods to cross-reference them with the quantitative data, and to continue to survey prospects and customers to build a stronger database of useful information. Kimberlee Leonard has been helping businesses for more than 17 years with business planning, team development and sales training.
Basic types of research strategies are the, well, most basic of them all. These are the research methodologies that are done simply because the researcher wants to get to know the certain topic. Basically, basic research is done for the enhancement of the knowledge of the person running the research.
The research strategy for this dissertation was established by adopting a way which the research objectives can be answered. There are two main types of research strategies: quantitative and qualitative.
Quantitative research really targets the statistics and size of your target customer, whereas qualitative research tries to get into the mindset of that group. When doing qualitative research, consider these examples to use or . Types of Research Strategy. An appropriate research strategy not only provides a direction to your study but also helps in choosing the right methodology for collecting and analysis the data for your research.
Research Types And Research Strategies It's necessary to choose the right type of research strategy that suits the research aim and objectives. It's considered to be very essential while doing a research. Research strategy and research ethics. research methods, sampling strategies and data analysis techniques. Whilst all of these components can have ethical implications for your dissertation, we focus on research designs, a couple of research methods, sampling strategies.