The civil rights movement was first and foremost a challenge to segregation, the system of laws and customs separating blacks and whites that whites used to control blacks after slavery was abolished in the s. During the civil rights movement, individuals and civil rights organizations challenged segregation and discrimination with a variety of activities, including protest marches, boycotts, and refusal to abide by segregation laws.
Many believe that the movement began with the Montgomery bus boycott in and ended with the Voting Rights Act of , though there is debate about when it began and whether it has ended yet. Segregation was an attempt by white Southerners to separate the races in every sphere of life and to achieve supremacy over blacks. Segregation was often called the Jim Crow system, after a minstrel show character from the s who was an old, crippled, black slave who embodied negative stereotypes of blacks.
Segregation became common in Southern states following the end of Reconstruction in During Reconstruction, which followed the Civil War , Republican governments in the Southern states were run by blacks, Northerners, and some sympathetic Southerners. The Reconstruction governments had passed laws opening up economic and political opportunities for blacks.
By the Democratic Party had gained control of government in the Southern states, and these Southern Democrats wanted to reverse black advances made during Reconstruction.
Over the next 75 years, Jim Crow signs went up to separate the races in every possible place. The system of segregation also included the denial of voting rights, known as disfranchisement. Between and all Southern states passed laws imposing requirements for voting that were used to prevent blacks from voting, in spite of the 15th Amendment to the Constitution of the United States, which had been designed to protect black voting rights.
As a final insult, the few blacks who made it over all these hurdles could not vote in the Democratic primaries that chose the candidates because they were open only to whites in most Southern states. Because blacks could not vote, they were virtually powerless to prevent whites from segregating all aspects of Southern life.
They could do little to stop discrimination in public accommodations, education, economic opportunities, or housing.
The ability to struggle for equality was even undermined by the prevalent Jim Crow signs, which constantly reminded blacks of their inferior status in Southern society. Segregation was an all encompassing system. Conditions for blacks in Northern states were somewhat better, though up to only about 10 percent of blacks lived in the North, and prior to World War II , very few blacks lived in the West. Blacks were usually free to vote in the North, but there were so few blacks that their voices were barely heard.
Segregated facilities were not as common in the North, but blacks were usually denied entrance to the best hotels and restaurants. Schools in New England were usually integrated, but those in the Midwest generally were not. Perhaps the most difficult part of Northern life was the intense economic discrimination against blacks. They had to compete with large numbers of recent European immigrants for job opportunities and almost always lost. Blacks fought against discrimination whenever possible.
One of the cases against segregated rail travel was Plessy v. In fact, separate was almost never equal, but the Plessy doctrine provided constitutional protection for segregation for the next 50 years.
To protest segregation, blacks created new national organizations. In the National Urban League was created to help blacks make the transition to urban, industrial life. It relied mainly on a legal strategy that challenged segregation and discrimination in courts to obtain equal treatment for blacks. NAACP lawyers won court victories over voter disfranchisement in and residential segregation in , but failed to have lynching outlawed by the Congress of the United States in the s and s.
These cases laid the foundation for a legal and social challenge to segregation although they did little to change everyday life. In Charles H. When World War I began, blacks enlisted to fight for their country. However, black soldiers were segregated, denied the opportunity to be leaders, and were subjected to racism within the armed forces.
During the war, hundreds of thousands of Southern blacks migrated northward in and to take advantage of job openings in Northern cities created by the war.
This great migration of Southern blacks continued into the s. Along with the great migration, blacks in both the North and South became increasingly urbanized during the 20th century. In , about 85 percent of all Southern blacks lived in rural areas; by that percentage had decreased to about 42 percent. In the North, about 95 percent of all blacks lived in urban areas in The combination of the great migration and the urbanization of blacks resulted in black communities in the North that had a strong political presence.
The black communities began to exert pressure on politicians, voting for those who supported civil rights. These Northern black communities, and the politicians that they elected, helped Southern blacks struggling against segregation by using political influence and money. The Great Depression of the s increased black protests against discrimination, especially in Northern cities.
Blacks protested the refusal of white-owned businesses in all-black neighborhoods to hire black salespersons. During the same years, blacks organized school boycotts in Northern cities to protest discriminatory treatment of black children. The black protest activities of the s were encouraged by the expanding role of government in the economy and society. During the administration of President Franklin D. Roosevelt the federal government created federal programs, such as Social Security, to assure the welfare of individual citizens.
Roosevelt himself was not an outspoken supporter of black rights, but his wife Eleanor became an open advocate for fairness to blacks, as did other leaders in the administration. The Roosevelt Administration opened federal jobs to blacks and turned the federal judiciary away from its preoccupation with protecting the freedom of business corporations and toward the protection of individual rights, especially those of the poor and minority groups.
Beginning with his appointment of Hugo Black to the U. Supreme Court in , Roosevelt chose judges who favored black rights. As early as , the courts displayed a new attitude toward black rights; that year the Supreme Court ruled that the state of Missouri was obligated to provide access to a public law school for blacks just as it provided for whites-a new emphasis on the equal part of the Plessy doctrine.
Blacks sensed that the national government might again be their ally, as it had been during the Civil War. Black newspaper editors insisted during and that black support for this war effort would depend on fair treatment.
They demanded that black soldiers be trained in all military roles and that black civilians have equal opportunities to work in war industries at home. Philip Randolph, head of the Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters, a union whose members were mainly black railroad workers, planned a March on Washington to demand that the federal government require defense contractors to hire blacks on an equal basis with whites.
Malcolm X's Civil Rights Movement was meant to rescue the blacks, since Malcolm X believed blacks could not advance in a society under enemy control by the whites. This is because nonviolence is a powerful and just weapon for the oppressed that cuts without physically wounding the oppressor but convicting the heart.
Violence did not succeed because this was the method of the racists who propagated it and could not be beaten in their own game. Custom Civil Rights Movement Essay Writing Service Civil Rights Movement Essay samples, help Introduction The civil rights movement was a movement in the United States in the s to the s and mainly led by Blacks in an effort to establish gender and racial equality for all the African Americans. Affiliate Program Refer our service to your friends!
Live Chat Order now. To register place your 1st order. FAQ What is a custom writing service? Are your writers qualified for the custom writing? How quick can my order be accomplished? Are essays offered by your company truly custom-written? Is it safe to buy papers from SupremeEssays. This is notable because Acheson was not an outspoken advocate for racial equality. A famous example of this is when the Ambassador to Chad was refused service in Maryland on his way to meet President Kennedy because, according to the waitress:.
The fights were fought and won on many fronts, with more foreign allies that one might initially have thought. Many history research papers recount the Civil Rights movement not only as a change to American history but a catalyst for world-wide change. This blog post is provided free of charge and we encourage you to use it for your research and writing. However, we do require that you cite it properly using the citation provided below in MLA format. Ultius Blog, 16 Oct.
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- Civil Rights Movement Out of all the movements in history, the Civil Rights Movement would have to have the most powerful argument and the most moving. This is this most convincing or moving movement of all because people’s lives were at stake.
The Civil Rights Movement Essay Words | 5 Pages. The civil rights movement was a span of time when the African Americans endeavor was to acquire their constitutional rights of which they were being deprived. A commendable bearing of the civil rights movement was the unachievable triumph that the blacks sought after and built.
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Music in the Civil Rights Movement African American spirituals, gospel, and folk music all played an important role in the Civil Rights Movement. Singers and musicians collaborated with ethnomusicologists and song collectors to disseminate songs to activists, both at large meetings and through publications. This sample edited research paper focuses on the Civil Rights Movement and its impact on American domestic policy. What is the Civil Rights movement? The Civil Rights Movement is a long-lasting fight for equality that spans nearly all nationalities and most continents of the globe to this day still/5(4).