Immediately, there was disagreement between Britain's ally Poland and the Soviet Union. The British and Poles strongly suspected that when Stalin was cooperating with Hitler, he ordered the execution of about 22, Polish officer POWs , at what was later to become known as the Katyn massacre.
Still, the Soviets and the Western Allies were forced to cooperate, despite their tensions. During the war, both sides disagreed on military strategy, especially the question of the opening of a second front against Germany in Western Europe. As early as July , Stalin asked Britain to invade northern France, but Britain was in no position to carry out such a request.
The US and Britain initially indicated that they would open the second front in , and then in , but it was postponed both times. The Soviets believed at the time, and charged throughout the Cold War, that the British and Americans intentionally delayed the opening of a second front against Germany in order to intervene only at the last minute so as to influence the peace settlement and dominate Europe.
Historians such as John Lewis Gaddis dispute this claim, citing other military and strategic calculations for the timing of the Normandy invasion. Nevertheless, Soviet perceptions or misconceptions of the West and vice versa left a strong undercurrent of tension and hostility between the Allied powers. In turn, in , the Soviets appeared to the Allies to have deliberately delayed the relief of the Polish underground 's Warsaw Uprising against the Nazis.
The Soviets did not supply the Uprising from the air, and for a significant time also refused to allow British and American air drops.
George Orwell was moved to make a public warning about Soviet postwar intentions. British-trained Polish special forces agent Maciej Kalenkiewicz was killed by the Soviets at this time. The British and Soviets also sponsored competing factions of resistance fighters in Yugoslavia and Greece. Both sides, moreover, held very dissimilar ideas regarding the establishment and maintenance of post-war security.
The Americans tended to understand security in situational terms, assuming that, if US-style governments and markets were established as widely as possible, countries could resolve their differences peacefully, through international organizations. This vision would require a rebuilt capitalist Europe, with a healthy Germany at its center, to serve once more as a hub in global affairs.
This would also require US economic and political leadership of the postwar world. Europe needed the USA's assistance if it was to rebuild its domestic production and finance its international trade. The USA was the only world power not economically devastated by the fighting. By the end of the war, it was producing around fifty percent of the world's industrial goods. Soviet leaders, however, tended to understand security in terms of space.
The problem was that Stalin's strategy risked confrontation with the equally powerful United States, who viewed Stalin's actions as a flagrant violation of the Yalta agreement. At the end of the war in Europe, in May , the Soviets insisted on occupying the Danish island of Bornholm , due to its strategic position at the entrance to the Baltic.
When the local German commander insisted on surrendering to the Western Allies, as did German forces in the rest of Denmark, the Soviets bombed the island, causing heavy casualties and damage among a civilian population which was only lightly touched throughout the war, and then invaded the island and occupied it until mid - all of which can be considered as initial moves in the Cold War.
Even before the war came to an end, it seemed highly likely that cooperation between the Western powers and the USSR would give way to intense rivalry or conflict. This was due primarily to the starkly contrasting economic ideologies of the two superpowers, now quite easily the strongest in the world. Whereas the USA was a liberal, two-party democracy with an advanced capitalist economy, based on free enterprise and profit-making, the USSR was a one-party Marxist—Leninist State with a state-controlled economy where private wealth was all but outlawed.
In , the Soviet Union conducted [ citation needed ] a show trial of 16 Polish resistance leaders who had spent the War fighting against the Nazis with British and American help. Within six years, 14 of them were dead. At the Nuremberg Trials , the chief Soviet prosecutor submitted false documentation in an attempt to indict German defendants for the murder of around 22, Polish officers in the Katyn forest near Smolensk.
However, suspecting Soviet culpability, the other Allied prosecutors refused to support the indictment and German lawyers promised to mount an embarrassing defense. No one was charged or found guilty at Nuremberg for the Katyn Forest massacre.
In , he was executed on charges of spying and 'serving the interests of foreign imperialism'. Several postwar disagreements between western and Soviet leaders were related to their differing interpretations of wartime and immediate post-war conferences. The Tehran Conference in late was the first Allied conference in which Stalin was present. At the conference the Soviets expressed frustration that the Western Allies had not yet opened a second front against Germany in Western Europe.
In Tehran, the Allies also considered the political status of Iran. At the time, the British had occupied southern Iran, while the Soviets had occupied an area of northern Iran bordering the Soviet republic of Azerbaijan. Nevertheless, at the end of the war, tensions emerged over the timing of the pull out of both sides from the oil-rich region. At the February Yalta Conference , the Allies attempted to define the framework for a postwar settlement in Europe.
The Allies could not reach firm agreements on the crucial questions: In occupied Germany, the US and the Soviet Union established zones of occupation and a loose framework for four-power control with the ailing French and British.
At the Potsdam Conference starting in late July , the Allies met to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier on May 7 and May 8, , VE day.
Serious differences emerged over the future development of Germany and Eastern Europe. Truman , who on April 12 succeeded to the office upon Roosevelt's death. Truman was unaware of Roosevelt's plans for post-war engagement with the Soviet Union, [ citation needed ] and more generally uninformed about foreign policy and military matters. This group tended to take a harder line towards Moscow than Roosevelt had done. The UK was represented by a new prime minister, Clement Attlee , who had replaced Churchill after the Labour Party's defeat of the Conservatives in the general election.
One week after the Potsdam Conference ended, the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki added to Soviet distrust of the United States, when shortly after the attacks, Stalin protested to U. The immediate end of war material shipments from America to the USSR after the surrender of Germany also upset some politicians in Moscow, who believed this showed the U. After the war, Stalin sought to secure the Soviet Union's western border by installing communist-dominated regimes under Soviet influence in bordering countries.
During and in the years immediately after the war, the Soviet Union annexed several countries as Soviet Socialist Republics within the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. Many of these were originally countries effectively ceded to it by Nazi Germany in the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , before Germany invaded the Soviet Union.
The defining characteristic of the Stalinist communism implemented in Eastern Bloc states was the unique symbiosis of the state with society and the economy, resulting in politics and economics losing their distinctive features as autonomous and distinguishable spheres. In February , George F. Kennan 's Long Telegram from Moscow helped articulate the growing hard line against the Soviets. Later writing as "Mr. From the standpoint of the Soviets, the speech was an incitement for the West to begin a war with the USSR , as it called for an Anglo-American alliance against the Soviets  " .
Having lost 20 million people in the war, suffered German invasion twice in 30 years, and suffered tens of millions of casualties from onslaughts from the West three times in the preceding years, the Soviet Union was determined to destroy Germany's capacity for another war.
This was in alignment with the U. On September 6, , James F. Byrnes made a speech in Germany , repudiating the Morgenthau Plan and warning the Soviets that the US intended to maintain a military presence in Europe indefinitely.
Byrnes ' speech Restatement of Policy on Germany. With the initial planning for the Marshall plan in mid , a plan which depended on a reactivated German economy,  restrictions placed on German production were lessened. The scrapping of JCS paved the way for the currency reform which halted rampant inflation. Stalin opposed the Marshall Plan. He had built up the Eastern Bloc protective belt of Soviet controlled nations on his Western border,  and wanted to maintain this buffer zone of states combined with a weakened Germany under Soviet control.
Western Allies conducted meetings in Italy in March with German representatives to forestall a takeover by Italian communist resistance forces in northern Italy and to hinder the potential there for post-war influence of the civilian communist party. Relations further deteriorated when, in January , the U. State Department also published a collection of documents titled Nazi—Soviet Relations, — Documents from the Archives of The German Foreign Office , which contained documents recovered from the Foreign Office of Nazi Germany   revealing Soviet conversations with Germany regarding the Molotov—Ribbentrop Pact , including its secret protocol dividing eastern Europe,   the German—Soviet Commercial Agreement ,   and discussions of the Soviet Union potentially becoming the fourth Axis Power.
The first major crisis in the emerging Cold War was the Berlin Blockade of — At first, Stalin had still hoped for cooperation with the West as seen in how he remained neutral in the Greek civil war.
Hence, this was a turning point in History as the US turned away from its policy of isolationism to containment and thus, forced the USSR to retaliate, hence causing the imminent divide of Europe. The Marshall Plan was one of the key events that had led to the start of the Cold War on the economic front. However, this plan would not even have been possible had US not stepped out of its policy of isolationism, hence it is more apt to say that it was the Truman Doctrine that had made all these possible.
Nevertheless, the Marshall Plan had saw the economic division of Europe and once was one key event that helped led to the start of the Cold War. Is had led to the abandonment of the policy of cooperation with the West and the seizing of power and creation of societies modeled on the Soviet system where possible. However, it was not to say that this was the main event that had led to the start of the Cold War as it was essentially due to the Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan.
The expression "cold war" was used for the first time by a journalist who wrote a speech for financier Bernard Baruch in Saf At the Teheran Conference Stalin was indifferent to the division of Germany into separate sections One may compare this to how the world looks to This research paper consists of five pages and considers the post Cold War nuclear threat with its changes in form a primary focus New to eCheat Create an Account!
The Origins of the Cold War Uploaded by srheric on Apr 25, The Origins of the Cold War The Cold War, which lasted from the mids until the end of the s, was a battle for longevity amid democratic and communistic governments.
Professionally written essays on this topic: The Origins of the Cold War Origins and Early Development of the Cold War In five pages this paper examines how the Cold War originated and its early stages of development and is not limited merely to the Cold War Origins and its Cultural Implications Japanese occupation wanted the end of colonial rule which in some cases wasnt met and started various "wars of national liberation Origins and Implications of the Cold War Era War; shortly thereafter, representatives of the Allied powers met in Europe for the Potsdam Conference, where territories were div Civil Rights Movement and the Impact of the Cold War The expression "cold war" was used for the first time by a journalist who wrote a speech for financier Bernard Baruch in Saf
Infact, Cold War is a kind of verbal war which is fought through newspapers, magazines, radio and other propaganda methods. It is a propaganda to which a great power resorts against the other power. It is a sort of diplomatic war.
Keywords: cold war origins, cold war causes Thesis: Revisionist or Post revisionist blaming america??? The Cold War () was a continuing political conflict, military tension, economic competition and nuclear arm race between the two superpowers of the time, the USA and the USSR.
Origins of the Cold War It can be said that actions taken by the United States in the early years of the Cold War were completely rational and based on the real fear that the Soviet Union was out to destroy America and our way of life. /5(9). Origins of the Cold War Essay Words | 6 Pages. Origins of the Cold War The purpose of this paper is to explore the origins of the Cold War. To accomplish this exploration, the works of W.A. Williams, Robert Jervis, and Arthur Schlesinger, Jr. serves as the foundation.
The responsibility of the origins of the Cold War often triggers questions amonghistorians yet both powers should be blamed for taking part in it. Through most analyses, thefault was often given to Stalin’s ambitions to expand communism in Europe, a conventional ideaof the Orthodox school. Origins of the Cold War Essay. The Cold War refers to a time of tension between the world’s two foremost superpowers following the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of World War Two. WW2 is generally considered to have started in when Germany invaded Poland.